An tradisyon na Smarta (Sanskrito: स्मार्त), inaapod man na Smartismo, sarong hiroan sa Hinduismo na nagrambong asin pinalakop kaiba an Puranas na genre nin literatura. Nagpapahiling ini nin sintisis nin apat na pilosopikal na strand, na an mga ngaran iyo si Mimamsa, Advaita, Yoga, asin teismo.[1] An tradisyon na Smarta nagsisikwal sa sektaryanismo, asin lataw na gayo sa pagsamba sa laog nin limang altar na may limang dios, an gabos tinatratar na pantay - Ganesha, Shiva, Shakti, Vishnu asin Surya.[1] An tradisyon kan Smarta kabaliktaran kan mas matuang tradisyon na Shrauta, na basado sa detalyadong mga ritwal asin seremonya. Igwa nin awad - awad na sobra sa mga ideya asin kaugalean kan tradisyon nin Smarta na may iba pang mahalagang makasaysayan na mga mobimiento sa laog nin Hinduismo, na iyo an Shaivismo, Bramanismo, Vaishnavismo, asin Shaktismo.[2][3]

An limang pangenot na dios kan Smarta sa sarong panchayatana na nakasentro ki Ganesha: Ganesha (tahaw) kaiba si Shiva (itaas na wala), Adi Shakti (itaas na tuo), Vishnu (ibaba na wala), and Surya (ibaba na tuo)

Namukna an tradisyon nin Smarta durante kan (amay na) Classical Period nin Hinduismo sa palibot kan kapinonan kan Komon na Kapanahonan, kan an Hinduismo nagbutwa sa interaksyon sa pag - oltanan nin Brahmanismo asin kan lokal na mga tradisyon. An tradisyon na Smarta nakalinya ki Advaita Vedanta, asin an mapadapit ki Adi Shankara bilang an kagpundar o repormador kaini.[4] An Shankara ipinagdepensa an ultimong katunayan bakong persona asin si Nirguna (daing prinsipyo) asin an siisay man na simbolikong dios kapareho man kaiyan an katuyohan.[5] Huling napukaw kan paniniwalang ini, an mga parasunod sa tradisyon na Smarta, kaiba an limang dios na Hindu, kaiba an ikaanom na impersonal na dios na ginigibo ninda.[5] An tradisyon inapod ni William Jackson na "advaitin, monistiko sa pananaw kaini." [6]

An terminong Smarta nagtutukoy sa Brahmins na nag - espesyalisar sa Smriti corpus nin mga teksto na an ngaran Grihya Sutras, na kabaliktaran kan Shrauta Sutras. An Smarta Brahmins, na nakasentro sa corpus kan Smriti, laen sa Srauta Brahmins, na nag - espesyalisar sa Sruti Corpus, an boot sabihon, mga ritwal asin seremonya na nagsusunod sa Vedas.[7][8][9][10]

ToltolanLiwaton

  1. 1.0 1.1 Milner, M. (1994). Status and Sacredness: A General Theory of Status Relations and an Analysis of Indian Culture. Oxford University Press. pp. 194–195. ISBN 978-0-19-535912-1. Retrieved 2018-06-18. 
  2. Sanderson, Alexis. "The Saiva Age: The Rise And Dominance Of Saivism During The Early Medieval Period". In Genesis And Development of Tantrism, Edited By Shingo Einoo. Tokyo: Institute Of Oriental Culture, University Of Tokyo, 2009. Institute Of Oriental Culture Special Series, 23, pp. 276–277.
  3. John Shephard (2009), Ninian Smart On World Religions, Ashgate, ISBN 978-0754666387, Page 186
  4. U Murthy (1979), Samskara, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195610796, page 150
  5. 5.0 5.1 L. Williamson (2010), Transcendent in America: Hindu-inspired Meditation Movements as New Religion, New York University Press, ISBN 978-0814794500, page 89
  6. William Jackson (1994), Tyāgarāja and the Renewal of Tradition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120811461, page 218
  7. Buhnemann, Gudrun, Puja: A Study In Smarta Ritual, Publications Of The De Nobili Research Library, Gerold & Co., Vienna, 1988. pp. 32–33.
  8. Buhnemann, Gudrun, Mandalas And Yantras In The Hindu Traditions, Leiden, Brill, 2003. p. 57. "Initially A Brief Explanation Of The Word Smarta May Be In Order. Smarta Is A Rather Loosely Used Term Which Refers To A Brahmin Who Is An 'Adherent Of The Smrti' And Of The Tradition Which Is 'Based On The Smrti'."
  9. Flood, Gavin (1996), An Introduction To Hinduism, Cambridge University Press. p. 17. "There Is Also An Important Tradition Of Brahmans Called Smartas, Those Who Follow The Smrti Or Secondary Revelation ..." p. 56. "The Brahmans Who Followed The Teachings Of These Texts Were Known As Smartas, Those Who Followed The Smrtis ..." p. 113. "The Brahmans Who Followed The Puranic Religion Became Known As Smarta, Those Whose Worship Was Based On The Smrtis, Or Pauranika, Those Based On The Puranas."
  10. Gavin Flood (2006). The Tantric Body: The Secret Tradition of Hindu Religion. I. B. Tauris. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-1-84511-011-6.