Si Claudius Ptolemy (/ˈtɒləmi/; Plantilya:Lang-grc-koi, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos, [ˈklaw.di.os pto.lɛˈmɛ.os]; Latin: Claudius Ptolemaeus; c. 100 – c. 170 AD)[2] sarong matematiko, astronomo, natural na pilosopo, geograpo asin astrologo na nagsurat nin mga siyentipikong treatise, tolo sa mga ini an nagin importante sa Byzantine, Islamic asin Western European na siyensya.

Early Baroque artist's rendition[1]
Kamundaganc. 100 AD[2]
Egypt, Roman Empire
Kagadananc. 170 (aged 69–70) AD[2]
Alexandria, Egypt, Roman Empire

Nag-istar si Ptolemy sa siyudad nin Alexandria sa Roman probinsya nin Ehipto usa irarom kan Roman Empire,[3] na igwang ngaran na Latin (na sinasabi kan mga mananalaysay na siya sarong Romano),[4] nagbanggit nin mga griyegong pilosopo, naggamit asin nag-obserbar nin Babylonian lunar theory. An ika-14 na siglo na astronomo na si Theodore Meliteniotes tinawan an saiyang lugar na kinamundagan na syudad nin griyego Ptolemais Hermiou (Πτολεμαΐς ‘Ερμείου) sa Thebaid (Θηβᾱΐς). Mayong ebidensya sa pahayag na ini.[5] Nagadan siya sa Alexandria kan 168.[6]

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  1. Since no contemporary depictions or descriptions of Ptolemy are known to have existed, later artists' impressions are unlikely to have reproduced his appearance accurately.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Plantilya:Britannica
  3. Heath, Sir Thomas (1921). A History of Greek Mathematics. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. vii, 273. 
  4. Neugebauer, Otto E. (2004). A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 834. ISBN 978-3-540-06995-9. ; "Ptolemy |". 
  5. Plantilya:Harvtxt; G. J. Toomer, "Ptolemy (or Claudius Ptolemaeus)". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2008. Retrieved from 21 January 2013. Concerning the possibility that Ptolemy might have been born in Ptolemais Hermiou, Toomer writes:

    [T]he only place mentioned in any of Ptolemy's observations is Alexandria, and there is no reason to suppose that he ever lived anywhere else. The statement by Theodore Meliteniotes that he was born in Ptolemais Hermiou (in Upper Egypt) could be correct, but it is late (ca. 1360) and unsupported.

  6. Jean Claude Pecker (2001), Understanding the Heavens: Thirty Centuries of Astronomical Ideas from Ancient Thinking to Modern Cosmology, p. 311, Springer, ISBN 3-540-63198-4.

Mga toltolanLiwaton

Quadripartitum, 1622
  • Bagrow, L. (1 January 1945). "The Origin of Ptolemy's Geographia". Geografiska Annaler (Geografiska Annaler, Vol. 27) 27: 318–387. doi:10.2307/520071. ISSN 1651-3215. 
  • Berggren, J. Lennart, and Alexander Jones. 2000. Ptolemy's Geography: An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01042-0.
  • Campbell, T. (1987). The Earliest Printed Maps. British Museum Press. 
  • Hübner, Wolfgang, ed. 1998. Claudius Ptolemaeus, Opera quae exstant omnia Vol III/Fasc 1: ΑΠΟΤΕΛΕΣΜΑΤΙΚΑ (= Tetrabiblos). De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-598-71746-8 (Bibliotheca scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana). (The most recent edition of the Greek text of Ptolemy's astrological work, based on earlier editions by F. Boll and E. Boer.)
  • Lejeune, A. (1989) L'Optique de Claude Ptolémée dans la version latine d'après l'arabe de l'émir Eugène de Sicile. [Latin text with French translation]. Collection de travaux de l'Académie International d'Histoire des Sciences, No. 31. Leiden: E.J.Brill.
  • Neugebauer, Otto (1975). A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy. I-III. Berlin and New York: Springer Verlag. 
  • Nobbe, C. F. A., ed. 1843. Claudii Ptolemaei Geographia. 3 vols. Leipzig: Carolus Tauchnitus. (Until Stückelberger (2006), this was the most recent edition of the complete Greek text.)
  • Peerlings, R.H.J., Laurentius F., van den Bovenkamp J.,(2017) The watermarks in the Rome editions of Ptolemy's Cosmography and more, In Quaerendo 47: 307-327, 2017.
  • Peerlings, R.H.J., Laurentius F., van den Bovenkamp J.,(2018) New findings and discoveries in the 1507/8 Rome edition of Ptolemy’s Cosmography, In Quaerendo 48: 139-162, 2018.
  • Ptolemy. 1930. Die Harmonielehre des Klaudios Ptolemaios, edited by Ingemar Düring. Göteborgs högskolas årsskrift 36, 1930:1. Göteborg: Elanders boktr. aktiebolag. Reprint, New York: Garland Publishing, 1980.
  • Ptolemy. 2000. Harmonics, translated and commentary by Jon Solomon. Mnemosyne, Bibliotheca Classica Batava, Supplementum, 0169-8958, 203. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. ISBN 90-04-11591-9
  • Plantilya:Wikicite.
  • Sidoli, Nathan; J. L. Berggren (2007). "The Arabic version of Ptolemy's Planisphere or Flattening the Surface of the Sphere: Text, Translation, Commentary". Sciamvs. 37 8 (139). 
  • Smith, A.M. (1996) Ptolemy's theory of visual perception: An English translation of the Optics with introduction and commentary. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 86, Part 2. Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society.
  • Solin, Heikke (2012), "names, personal, Roman.", in Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony; Eidinow, Esther, The Oxford Classical Dictionary, Oxford University Press, retrieved 8 June 2019 .
  • Stevenson, Edward Luther (trans. and ed.). 1932. Claudius Ptolemy: The Geography. New York: New York Public Library. Reprint, New York: Dover, 1991. (This is the only complete English translation of Ptolemy's most famous work. Unfortunately, it is marred by numerous mistakes and the placenames are given in Latinised forms, rather than in the original Greek).
  • Stückelberger, Alfred, and Gerd Graßhoff (eds). 2006. Ptolemaios, Handbuch der Geographie, Griechisch-Deutsch. 2 vols. Basel: Schwabe Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7965-2148-5. (Massive 1018 pp. scholarly edition by a team of a dozen scholars that takes account of all known manuscripts, with facing Greek and German text, footnotes on manuscript variations, color maps, and a CD with the geographical data)
  • Taub, Liba Chia (1993). Ptolemy's Universe: The Natural Philosophical and Ethical Foundations of Ptolemy's Astronomy . Chicago: Open Court Press. ISBN 0-8126-9229-2. 
  • Ptolemy's Almagest, Translated and annotated by G. J. Toomer. Princeton University Press, 1998
  • Sir Thomas Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics, Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1921.

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