Bukasan an pangenot na hùyagan

An Kolkata /koʊlˈkɑːtə/ ([kolkata] (Manungod sa tanogdangugon), midbid na Calcutta /kælˈkʌtə/, an opisyal na ngaran hantos 2001) an kapitolyo nin Indiyanong estado kan Sulnupang Bengal. Nasa subangang banko kan Salog Hooghly na pigtatantyang 75 kilometro (47 mi) sulnupan kan hangganan nin Bangladesh, ini an komersiyo, kultural, asin sentro nin edukasyon sa East India, mientras an Port of Kolkata an pinakalumang ng ooperar na puerto sa India asin salog. An siyudad nabibisto sa pagiging "cultural capital" sa India, asin igwang alyas na "City of Joy".[1][2][3] Base sa 2011 Indian census, ini an ikapitong pinakamatawong siyudad; igwa ini nin populasyon na 4.5 milyon, mientras an ibang siyudad uminabot 14.1 million kagabsan, ini nagin ikatolo sa pinakamatawong lugar sa India. Tigtatantya na an ekonomiya kan Kolkata uminabot sa $60 hanggang $150 billion (GDP) na nagin ika tolo sa pinakaproduktibong lugar , sunod sa Mumbai asin Delhi.[4][5][6]

Mga toltolanLiwaton

Mababasa pa laloLiwaton


  • Chaudhuri, S (1990). Calcutta: the living City. I and II. Kolkata: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-562585-1. 
  • Dutta, Krishna (2003). Calcutta: a cultural and literary history. Oxford, UK: Signal Books. ISBN 978-1-902669-59-5. 
  • Mitra, A (1976). Calcutta diary. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 978-0-7146-3082-3. 
  • Mukherjee, SC (1991). The changing face of Calcutta: an architectural approach. Kolkata: Government of West Bengal. ASIN B0000D6TXX. 
  • Roy, A (2002). City requiem, Calcutta: gender and the politics of poverty. Minneapolis, US: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-3932-8. 
  • Thomas, Frederic C. (1997). Calcutta poor: elegies on a city above pretense. Armonk, New York City: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-1-56324-981-5. 
  • Lapierre, Dominique (1985). La cité de la joie (The City of Joy). Kolkata: Arrow. ISBN 978-0-09-914091-7. 
  • Singh, Malvika (2011). Kolkata: A Soul City (Historic and Famed Cities of India). Academic Foundation. p. 110. ISBN 978-81-7188-886-3. 
  • Hazra, Indrajit (1 December 2013). Grand Delusions: A Short Biography of Kolkata. Aleph Book Company. p. 156. ISBN 978-93-82277-28-6. 
  • Ghosh, Amitav (22 April 2009). Calcutta Chromosome: A Novel of Fevers, Delirium and Discovery. Penguin India. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-14-306655-2. 
  • Deb, Binaya Krishna (1905). The Early History and Growth of Calcutta. Harvard University: Romesh Chandra Ghose. p. 278. 
  • Chaudhuri, Sukanta (1990). Calcutta, the Living City: The past. the University of Michigan: Oxford University Press. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-19-562718-3. 
  • Roy, Ananya (1 October 2002). City Requiem, Calcutta: Gender and Politics of Poverty. University of Minnesota Press. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-8166-3933-5. 
  • Chatterjee, Jayabrato; Khullar, Rupinder (1 January 2004). Kolkata: the dream city. the University of Michigan: UBS Publishers' Distributors. p. 93. ISBN 978-81-7476-471-3. 
  • Moorhouse, Geoffrey (1971). Calcutta. Penguin Books India. p. 393. ISBN 978-0-14-009557-9. 
  • Chatterjee, Partha (2012). The Black Hole of Empire: History of a Global Practice of Power. Princeton University Press. p. 425. ISBN 978-0-691-15201-1. 
  • Chattopadhyay, Swati (2005). Representing Calcutta: Modernity, Nationalism, and the Colonial Uncanny. Psychology Press. p. 314. ISBN 978-0-415-34359-6. 
  • Dey, Ishita; Samaddar, Ranabir (2016). Beyond Kolkata: Rajarhat and the Dystopia of Urban Imagination. Routledge. p. 304. ISBN 9781134931378. 
  • Husain, Zakir; Dutta, Mousumi (2013). Women in Kolkata's IT Sector: Satisficing Between Work and Household. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 133. ISBN 9788132215936. 
  • Bose, Pablo Shiladitya (2015). Urban Development in India: Global Indians in the Remaking of Kolkata. Routledge. p. 178. ISBN 9781317596738. 
  • Ray, Raka; Qayum, Seemin (2009). Cultures of Servitude: Modernity, Domesticity, and Class in India. Stanford University Press. p. 255. ISBN 9780804760713. 
  • Ghosh, Anindita (2016). Claiming the City: Protest, Crime, and Scandals in Colonial Calcutta, c. 1860-1920. Oxford University Press. p. 340. ISBN 978-0199464791. 
  • Sanyal, Shukla (2014). Revolutionary Pamphlets, Propaganda and Political Culture in Colonial Bengal. Cambridge University Press. p. 219. ISBN 9781107065468. 
  • Busteed, Henry Elmsley (1888). Echoes from Old Calcutta: Being Chiefly Reminiscences of the Days of Warren Hastings, Francis, and Impey. Asian Educational Services. p. 359. ISBN 9788120612952. 
  • Fruzzetti, Lina; Östör, Ákos (2003). Calcutta Conversations. Orient Blackswan. p. 242. ISBN 9788180280092. 
  • Richards, E. P. (2014). The Condition, Improvement and Town Planning of the City of Calcutta and Contiguous Areas: The Richards Report. Routledge. p. 492. ISBN 9781317617006. 
  • Chatterjee, Arnab; Yarlagadda, Sudhakar (2007). Econophysics of Wealth Distributions: Econophys-Kolkata I. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 248. ISBN 9788847003897. 
  • Sarkar, Tanika (2015). Calcutta: The Stormy Decades. Social Science Press. p. 486. ISBN 978-9383166077. 
  • Choudhury, Ranabir Ray (2016). A City in the Making: Aspects of Calcutta's Early Growth. Niyogi Books. p. 564. ISBN 978-9385285288. 
  • Banerjee, Sumanta (2016). Memoirs of Roads: Calcutta from Colonial Urbanization to Global Modernization. Oxford University Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0199468102. 

External linksLiwaton


  1. "India: Calcutta, the capital of culture-Telegraph". telegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160102024458/http://www.telegraph.co.uk/luxury/travel/1245/india-calcutta-the-capital-of-culture.html. Retrieved on 25 July 2016. 
  2. "Kolkata remains cultural capital of India: Amitabh Bachchan - Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". Archived from the original on 25 June 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170625005244/http://www.dnaindia.com/entertainment/report-kolkata-remains-cultural-capital-of-india-amitabh-bachchan-1763111. Retrieved on 25 November 2016. 
  3. "Foundation of Kolkata Museum of Modern Art laid". business-standard.com. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160305054533/http://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/foundation-of-kolkata-museum-of-modern-art-laid-113111400889_1.html. Retrieved on 25 July 2016. 
  4. "Global city GDP 2014". Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170525113815/https://www.brookings.edu/research/global-metro-monitor/. Retrieved on 8 May 2015. 
  5. "Which are the largest city economies in the world and how might this change by 2025?". Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20150418012510/http://pwc.blogs.com/files/global-city-gdp-rankings-2008-2025.pdf. Retrieved on 17 April 2015. 
  6. "India's top 15 cities with the highest GDP Photos Yahoo! India Finance". Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20141009131024/https://in.finance.yahoo.com/photos/the-top-15-indian-cities-by-gdp-1348807591-slideshow/the-top-15-indian-cities-by-gdp-photo-1348807049.html. Retrieved on 27 March 2017.