An Halloween o Hallowe'en (sarong pinahalipot kan "All Hallows' even," evening), na mas dai midbid sa ngaran na Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, o All Saints' Eve, sarong selebrasyon na ginigibo sa dakol na nasyon sa ika-31 nin Oktubre, an bisperas kan Solnopan na Kristiano an kapiyestahan nin All Hallows' Day. Nagpupuon ini sa pagselebrar kan Allhallowtide, an panahon sa liturgical year na idinusay sa paggirumdom sa mga gadan, kaiba an mga santo (mga hallows), martir, asin gabos na nagkagaradan na.[2][3]

Halloween
Halloween
An pag-ukit nin jack-o'-lantern iyo an komun na tradisyon sa Halloween
Inaapod man na
  • Hallowe'en
  • All Hallowe'en
  • All Hallows' Eve
  • All Saints' Eve
Pigseselebrar kanMga Solnopang Kristyano asin nagkapirang mga dae-Kristyano sa bilog na kinaban[1]
KlaseKristyano
ImportansyaEnot na aldaw kan Allhallowtide
Petsa31 October
Nasusugpon saTotensonntag, Blue Christmas, Thursday of the Dead, Samhain, Hop-tu-Naa, Calan Gaeaf, Allantide, Day of the Dead, Reformation Day, All Saints' Day, Mischief Night (cfvigil)

An sarong teoriya nagsasabi na an dakol na tradisyon sa Halloween naiimpluwensyahan kan mga kapiestahan sa pag-ani kan mga Celtic, partikularmente an kapiestahan nin Gaelic na Samhain, na pinaniniwalaan na may paganong ginikanan.[4][5][6][7] An iba nagpapadagos asin nagsusuherir na an Samhain posibleng ginibong Kristianisado bilang All Hallows' Day, kaiba an bisperas kaiyan, kan enot na Iglesia.[8] An iba pang akademiko nagtutubod na an Halloween nagpoon sana bilang sarong Kristianong kapiestahan, na iyo an vigil kan All Hallows' Day.[9][10] Sa laog nin dakol na siglo, an mga imigranteng Irish asin Scottish nagdara nin dakol na kostumbre sa Halloween sa Amerika del Norte kan ika - 19 na siglo, dangan sa paagi kan impluwensiya nin mga Amerikano an Halloween luminakop sa ibang nasyon kan huring kabtang kan ika - 20 asin amay kan ika - 21 siglo.[11][12]

Kabale sa bantogan na mga aktibidad sa Halloween iyo an trick-or-treat (o an kaagid na mga guisi asin pangangalag), pag - atender sa mga Halloween costume party, pag-ukit sa mga karabasa nganing magin jack-o'-lanterns, pag-ilaw sa mga bonfire, apple bobbing, divination games, pagkawat nin mga prank, magbisita sa mga haunted attraction, mag-estorya nin makatakot asin magdalan nin horror o Halloween themed na pelikula.[13] An nagkapirang tawo ginigibo an Kristianong relihiosong mga selebrasyon kan All Hallows' Eve, kaiba an pag - atender sa mga seremonya sa simbahan asin magsindi nin kandila sa lolobngan kan mga gadan, minsan ngani iyan sekular na selebrasyon para sa iba.[14][15][16][17] An nagkapirang Kristiano sa kasaysayan naglilikay sa karne sa All Hallows' Eve, sarong tradisyon na ipinababanaag sa pagkakan nin nagkapirang kakanon na bigatearyo sa aldaw na ini nin vigil, kaiba na an mga mansanas, potato pancake, asin mga soul cake.[18][19][20][21]

ToltolanLiwaton

  1. [1]
  2. "Happy Hallowe'en Surrey!". University of Surrey. http://www.ussu.co.uk/stagmedia/Documents/Issues/The%20Stag%20-%20Issue%2076%20(Small%20File%20Size).pdf. "Halloween or Hallowe'en, is the yearly celebration on October 31st that signifies the first day of Allhallowtide, being the time to remember the dead, including martyrs, saints and all faithful departed Christians." 
  3. Davis, Kenneth C. (29 December 2009). Don't Know Much About Mythology: Everything You Need to Know About the Greatest Stories in Human History but Never Learned (in English). HarperCollins. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-06-192575-7. 
  4. Smith, Bonnie G. (2004). Women's History in Global Perspective. University of Illinois Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-252-02931-8. Retrieved 14 December 2015. The pre-Christian observance obviously influenced the Christian celebration of All Hallows' Eve, just as the Taoist festival affected the newer Buddhist Ullambana festival. Although the Christian version of All Saints' and All Souls' Days came to emphasize prayers for the dead, visits to graves, and the role of the living assuring the safe passage to heaven of their departed loved ones, older notions never disappeared. 
  5. Nicholas Rogers (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-516896-9. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Halloween and the Day of the Dead share a common origin in the Christian commemoration of the dead on All Saints' and All Souls' Day. But both are thought to embody strong pre-Christian beliefs. In the case of Halloween, the Celtic celebration of Samhain is critical to its pagan legacy, a claim that has been foregrounded in recent years by both new-age enthusiasts and the evangelical Right. 
  6. Austrian information. 1965. Retrieved 31 October 2011. The feasts of Hallowe'en, or All Hallows Eve and the devotions to the dead on All Saints' and All Souls' Day are both mixtures of old Celtic, Druid and other pagan customs intertwined with Christian practice. 
  7. Merriam-Webster's Encyclopædia of World Religions . Merriam-Webster. 1999. p. 408. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Halloween, also called All Hallows' Eve, holy or hallowed evening observed on October 31, the eve of All Saints' Day. The Irish pre-Christian observances influenced the Christian festival of All Hallows' Eve, celebrated on the same date. 
  8. Roberts, Brian K. (1987). The Making of the English Village: A Study in Historical Geography. Longman Scientific & Technical. ISBN 978-0-582-30143-6. Retrieved 14 December 2015. Time out of time', when the barriers between this world and the next were down, the dead returned from the grave, and gods and strangers from the underworld walked abroad was a twice- yearly reality, on dates Christianised as All Hallows' Eve and All Hallows' Day. 
  9. O’Donnell, Hugh; Foley, Malcolm (18 December 2008). Treat or Trick? Halloween in a Globalising World (in English). Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-1-4438-0265-9. Hutton (1996, 363) identifies Rhys as a key figure who, along with another Oxbridge academic, James Frazer, romanticised the notion of Samhain and exaggerated its influence on Halloween. Hutton argues that Rhys had no substantiated documentary evidence for claiming that Halloween was the Celtic new year, but inferred it from contemporary folklore in Wales and Ireland. Moreover, he argues that Rhys: "thought that [he] was vindicated when he paid a subsequent visit to the Isle of Man and found its people sometimes called 31 October New Year's Night (Hog-unnaa) and practised customs which were usually associated with 31 December. In fact the flimsy nature of all this evidence ought to have been apparent from the start. The divinatory and purificatory rituals on 31 October could be explained by a connection to the most eerie of Christian feasts (All Saints) or by the fact that they ushered in the most dreaded of seasons. The many "Hog-unnaa" customs were also widely practised on the conventional New Year's Eve, and Rhys was uncomfortably aware that they might simply have been transferred, in recent years, from then Hallowe'en, to increase merriment and fundraising on the latter. He got round this problem by asserting that in his opinion (based upon no evidence at all) the transfer had been the other way round." ... Hutton points out that Rhy's unsubstantiated notions were further popularised by Frazer who used them to support an idea of his own, that Samhain, as well as being the origin of Halloween, had also been a pagan Celtic feast of the dead—a notion used to account for the element of ghosts, witches and other unworldly spirits commonly featured within Halloween. ... Halloween's preoccupation with the netherworld and with the supernatural owes more to the Christian festival of All Saints or All Souls, rather than vice versa. 
  10. Barr, Beth Allison (28 October 2016). "Guess what? Halloween is more Christian than Pagan" (in en). "It is the medieval Christian festivals of All Saints’ and All Souls’ that provide our firmest foundation for Halloween. From emphasizing dead souls (both good and evil), to decorating skeletons, lighting candles for processions, building bonfires to ward off evil spirits, organizing community feasts, and even encouraging carnival practices like costumes, the medieval and early modern traditions of “Hallowtide” fit well with our modern holiday. So what does this all mean? It means that when we celebrate Halloween, we are definitely participating in a tradition with deep historical roots. But, while those roots are firmly situated in the medieval Christian past, their historical connection to “paganism” is rather more tenuous." 
  11. Brunvand, Jan (editor). American Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Routledge, 2006. p.749
  12. Colavito, Jason. Knowing Fear: Science, Knowledge and the Development of the Horror Genre. McFarland, 2007. pp.151–152
  13. Paul Fieldhouse (17 April 2017). Food, Feasts, and Faith: An Encyclopedia of Food Culture in World Religions. ABC-CLIO. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-61069-412-4. 
  14. Skog, Jason (2008). Teens in Finland. Capstone. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-7565-3405-9. Most funerals are Lutheran, and nearly 98 percent of all funerals take place in a church. It is customary to take pictures of funerals or even videotape them. To Finns, death is a part of the cycle of life, and a funeral is another special occasion worth remembering. In fact, during All Hallow's Eve and Christmas Eve, cemeteries are known as valomeri, or seas of light. Finns visit cemeteries and light candles in remembrance of the deceased. 
  15. The Christian Observances of Halloween. "Among the European nations the beautiful custom of lighting candles for the dead was always a part of the "All Hallow's Eve" festival.". 
  16. Hynes, Mary Ellen (1993). Companion to the Calendar. Liturgy Training Publications. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-56854-011-5. In most of Europe, Halloween is strictly a religious event. Sometimes in North America the church's traditions are lost or confused. 
  17. Braden, Donna R.; Village, Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield (1988). Leisure and entertainment in America . Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village. ISBN 978-0-933728-32-5. Retrieved 2 June 2014. Halloween, a holiday with religious origins but increasingly secularized as celebrated in America, came to assume major proportions as a children's festivity. 
  18. Santino, p. 85
  19. All Hallows' Eve (Diana Swift), Anglican Journal
  20. Mahon, Bríd (1991). Land of Milk and Honey: The Story of Traditional Irish Food & Drink (in English). Poolbeg Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-85371-142-8. The vigil of the feast is Halloween, the night when charms and incantations were powerful, when people looked into the future, and when feasting and merriment were ordained. Up to recent time this was a day of abstinence, when according to church ruling no flesh meat was allowed. Colcannon, apple cake and barm brack, as well as apples and nuts were part of the festive fare. 
  21. Fieldhouse, Paul (17 April 2017). Food, Feasts, and Faith: An Encyclopedia of Food Culture in World Religions (in English). ABC-CLIO. p. 254. ISBN 978-1-61069-412-4. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017. In Ireland, dishes based on potatoes and other vegetables were associated with Halloween, as meat was forbidden during the Catholic vigil and fast leading up to All Saint's Day.