Pagkalaen sa tahaw nin mga pagbabago kan "Yeast"

207 na mga bayta pinagtangkas ,  9 months ago
Mayong sumaryo nin pagliwat
(Pinagmukna an pahina kaining "An mga '''yeast''' iyo eukaryotiko, sarong-selula na mikroorganismo na pigbibisto bilang miyembrfo nin kahadean kan fungus. An mga enot na yeast iyo naglutaw mga ga...")
 
An mga '''yeast''' iyo eukaryotiko, sarong-selula na mikroorganismo na pigbibisto bilang miyembrfomiyembro nin kahadean kan fungus. An mga enot na yeast iyo naglutaw mga gatos na taon na an uminagi, asin dae mababa sa 1,500 na [[species]] an aram sa ngunyan.<ref>[https://books.google.com/books?id=7NclBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA98&dq=S.+cerevisiae+probably+more+than+300+million+years+ago&hl=no&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiepa-I0p7NAhVFMZoKHYIyCnsQ6AEIHTAA#v=onepage&q=S.%20cerevisiae%20probably%20more%20than%20300%20million%20years%20ago&f=false Molecular Mechanisms in Yeast Carbon Metabolism]. The second completely sequenced yeast genome came 6 years later from the fission yeast ''Schizosaccharomyces pombe'', which diverged from ''S. cerevisiae'' probably more than 300 million years ago.</ref><ref name="YeastRef1" /><ref name="pmid26447128">{{cite journal|vauthors=Hoffman CS, Wood V, Fantes PA|title=An Ancient Yeast for Young Geneticists: A Primer on the ''Schizosaccharomyces pombe'' Model System|journal=[[Genetics (journal)|Genetics]]|volume=201|issue=2|pages=403–23|date=October 2015|pmid=26447128|doi=10.1534/genetics.115.181503|pmc=4596657}}</ref> Sa pag-estima, sinda harus 1% kan gabos na species na "fungal".<ref name="Kurtzman2" />
 
An mga yeast dae nagpoporma nin sarong ''taxonomic'' o ''phylogenetic'' na paggrupo. An terminong "yeast" iyo harus piggagamit na sinonimo para sa ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'',<ref name="Kurtzman1994" /> pero an ''phylogenetic'' na dibersad kan mga yeast iyo pinapahiling kan saidang lugar sa duwang magkasuway na ''phyla'': an Ascomycota asin an Basidiomycota. An "''budding'' yeasts" o "totoong yeasts" iyo pigkaklasipika sa order na ''Saccharomycetales'',<ref name="YeastRef2" /> na yayaon sa phylum na Ascomycota.
 
== Istraktura ==
An mga yeast iyo mga uniselular na organismo na gikan sa saindang multiselular na ninuno,kun sain an ibang species may abilidad na magkaigwa nin multiselular na karakter sa pagkonekta kan mga ''budding'' na selula na bistado bilang ''pseudohyphae'' o "false hyphae". An mga sukol kan mga yeast iyo iba-iba, kun sain nakadepende sa species asin kapalibotan, na harus may sukol nin 3–4&nbsp;µm sa diyametro, maski ngani an ibang mga yeast pwedeng magdakula hasta 40&nbsp;µm an sukol. Kadaklan kan mga yeast iyo nabubuhay hale sa asekswal na reproduksyon na mitosis, na harus iyo sa asimetrikong pagbanga na prosesong "budding". Sa saindang sarong-selulang pagdakula na kasibotan, an mga yeast pwedeng maribong sa mga mold, na nagpapadakula nin hyphae. An mga "fungal" na mga specie na pwedeng magporma kapareho kan duwa (depende sa temperatura o iba pang mga kondisyon) iyo pig-aapud na "dimorphic fungi".
Yeasts are [[Unicellular organism|unicellular organisms]] that evolved from [[Multicellular organism|multicellular]] ancestors,<ref name="Yong 2012" /> with some species having the ability to develop multicellular characteristics by forming strings of connected budding cells known as [[pseudohyphae]] or false hyphae.<ref name="Kurtzman1" /> Yeast sizes vary greatly, depending on species and environment, typically measuring 3–4&nbsp;[[Micrometre|µm]] in [[diameter]], although some yeasts can grow to 40&nbsp;µm in size.<ref name="Walker" /> Most yeasts reproduce [[Asexual reproduction|asexually]] by [[mitosis]], and many do so by the asymmetric division process known as [[budding]]. With their single-celled growth habit, yeasts can be contrasted with [[Mold (fungus)|molds]], which grow [[Hypha|hyphae]]. Fungal species that can take both forms (depending on temperature or other conditions) are called [[dimorphic fungi]].
 
== Kagamitan ==
The yeast species ''[[Saccharomyces cerevisiae]]'' converts [[Carbohydrate|carbohydrates]] to [[carbon dioxide]] and [[Ethanol|alcohols]] in a process known as [[Fermentation (food)|fermentation]]. The products of this reaction have been used in [[baking]] and the production of alcoholic beverages for thousands of years.<ref name="Legras2007" /> ''S. cerevisiae'' is also an important [[model organism]] in modern [[cell biology]] research, and is one of the most thoroughly studied [[eukaryotic]] microorganisms. Researchers have cultured it in order to understand the biology of the eukaryotic cell and ultimately human biology in great detail.<ref name="Ostergaard 2000" /> Other species of yeasts, such as ''[[Candida albicans]]'', are [[Opportunistic pathogen|opportunistic pathogens]] and can cause [[Yeast infection|infections]] in humans. Yeasts have recently been used to generate electricity in [[Microbial fuel cell|microbial fuel cells]]<ref name="YeastRef3" /> and to produce [[ethanol]] for the [[biofuel]] industry.
 
== Hilingon man ==
6,353 mga pagliwat